Project Management and Working With Executives

photo_corporate-executive-board-meeting-evaluationAs project managers, it is within our remit to be able to communicate effectively. Dealing with people on a day-to-day basis in part in parcel with our job description. However, how we communicate and interact is often heavily predicated on who the individual is that we are speaking with. Dealing with resources or ancillary team members is one think: dealing with high-ranking individuals in the company is quite another. The nature and type of information to be shared can vary greatly as well as to how it is disseminated.

To understand communication with executives requires a fair amount of flair on the part of the project manager. More often than not, your time is limited and scrutiny is high.

Types of Executives

Within the corporate ranks, there are varied levels of individuals who are generally the ‘big cheese’, so to speak, or at least hold some high level status within the company. In certain cases, depending on the nature of the project, one or more of these individuals may want to be kept apprised on how the project is progressing. This can include an executive delegated as the project sponsor, or even executives who are defined as stakeholders. As a quick overview of varied executives that can exist in a corporate structure, here is a brief synopsis.

  1. Sr. Director – The highest ranking ‘middle management’ level on most organizations. Can have a varied staff which includes individuals contributors, first and second line functional managers as well as other directors. May periodically function as a project sponsor but more often than not will be more akin to a stakeholder.
  2. Vice President – First line executive in the upper branches of the corporate structure. Will generally be responsible for a specific business unit or organization within a corporation. Generally has Sr. Managers, Directors and Sr. Directors reporting to them. Very common for a Vice President to act as a project sponsor.
  3. Sr. Vice President – Second line executive, also usually responsible for a specific business unit or several business units. Usually will have Sr. Directors or other Vice Presidents reporting to them. Can also function as a project sponsor.
  4. Executive Vice President – Third line executive, which often holds some of the most senior ranks within a company, usually responsible for many high level lines of business that function in common spaces. Often times, individuals like Chief Operating Officers, Chief Technical Officers and Chief Financial Officers will have an Executive Vice Presidential rank. May act as the project sponsor for very high level projects.
  5. Chief Executive Officer – The highest ranking executive in the corporate ranks. Essentially the de facto leader of the corporation. All other senior and executive level vice presidents will be reporting to this individual in one way or the other. It is highly unlikely that he/she will function as the project sponsor, but they may ask for regular updates on the project status, depending on how high-profile the project may be.

In addition to those listed above, there may be other derivations of the above ranks. Chief Information Security Officer, Chief Marketing Officer, Chief Legal Counsel, and so forth. But for the most part, those titles will generally be aligned with the ranks in the aforementioned list.

Suggestions on How to Present Information

As project and program managers, we are very used to both collecting and distributing information. Generally speaking, the majority of our engagement will be at the team level, coordinating resources, dealing with low-level project priorities, and so forth. However, there are also those circumstances whereby we are tasked with presenting information to the upper brass.

As most can probably surmise, executives are busy people. They spend copious hours in meetings per day, either in person or on conference calls. As such, they have become very accustomed to a high level of meeting efficiency. With that in mind, executives will have very little patience with an individual who appears ill prepared or is struggling with his laptop and PowerPoint deck. In addition, executives have a very high level view of the organization and may not know (or frankly care) about some of the finer details.

With the above in mind, here are some presentation tips that the project manager can utilize in these circumstances:

  1. Speak Clearly and Plainly – As alluded to, executives have little patience for long-winded banter or tangents. They want to quickly understand the information being presented so as to be able to absorb it and make cogent decisions. So avoid too much dialog. Get to the point as quickly as possible. Be terse in your answers and do not go into overly long detail unless otherwise asked. It is better to let the executives drives the dialog by asking questions as opposed to trying to lead the meeting.
  2. Your Slides Should Be Easy to Understand – As indicated, executives want information quickly and easily disseminated. A single slide with twenty bullet points on it will not go over well, as it will appear too busy. Try to minimize content to three bullet points per slide. Additionally and whenever possible, use graphs or charts to drive your point home. It may sound corny, but a picture truly is worth a thousand words. Also, keep your slide deck at manageable levels. Move details into the appendix and keep the actual deck as short as possible. Remember that your back and forth dialog with the executive should be the primary facilitator of information. The slide deck is just there to provide context.
  3. Make Project Progress Easy to Comprehend – In a similar fashion to keeping your information simple and terse, actual project status and progress should be as simple to comprehend as possible. Utilize color codes to denote project status (i.e. Green=Good, Yellow=Warning, Red=Problem). These are simple concepts that anyone can easily understand at a glance. If you are also using charts and graphs, which is recommended, make them simple in concept and type. A line graph or a basic histogram is pretty easy to interpret for just about anyone. Make them look professional, but don’t get overly fancy, as it may make your charts look too busy.
  4. Allow for Ample Time for Questions – As indicated, the Q&A between yourself and the executives should be the primary driver of the presentation. As such, ensure you provide enough time in your overall presentation for questions. It is also important to stop periodically as you are moving through your presentation to ask if anyone has questions. Do not leave all the Q&A to the end. It is not always easy to budget your time, but you are far better off ensuring you can get through your presentation with ample time for questions rather than having to leave information behind because you did not budget your time effectively.
  5. Dress Appropriately – This one may seem like a no-brainer, but in the tech world, many of us have become accustomed to being able to wear what makes us comfortable. However, when you are dealing with executives, especially in person, how you present yourself will go a long way towards providing a good first impression. If you show up at the meeting looking like the frat boy who just woke up from a huge kegger party, it will probably not be well received. One does not necessarily need to wear an Armani suit or be dressed to the tees. But keep yourself presentable and as refined as possible.

The Dos and Don’t of Dealing with Executives

How your communicate with executives often requires a little bit of flair. It can be as simple as knowing which words to use and which to avoid while also ensuring that you give the executives the respect they deserve. Or, at least, think they deserve. Here are some additional pointers when it comes to your engagement with senior leaders.

The Dos

  • Be Honest – Nothing will irk an executive more than attempting to be deceitful about specific information. We all have a natural tendency to think executives don’t want to hear bad news. But that is just placating to human nature. Nobody wants to hear bad news. But executives understand that it can happen and would much rather know about it so they can come up with some contingency as needed.
  • Be Confident – Once again, how you present yourself will go a long way towards gaining respect from your leaders. We all have a natural tendency to be intimidated by those who hold higher positions in a company. But remember; most of them were once in your shoes. Once you understand that, you can better relate to those to whom you are presenting.
  • Be Receptive to Their Views – The last thing an executive wants to hear is outright disagreement to their opinion or stance on a subject. With that in mind, if an executive raises a point during your presentation that may be counter to what your opinion may be, acknowledge it. You are not necessarily correct, afterall. If an issue is raised, start a frank but professional back and forth on the issue. If necessary, that can always be offlined for further discussion depending on the topic.
  • Be Cognizant of Their Knowledge – Despite what many of us may think, most executives reached their level of success because they were good at what they did. As such, consider them to be a good source of suggestions. An executive may give you a particular response to an aspect of your presentation whereby they suggest an alternate course or a simple change of how the information is conveyed. Be appreciative of that feedback and acknowledge it. For the most part, they understand how things operate at that level and are just trying to be helpful.
  • Be Funny – This one may heavily depend on the type of presentation. But in many cases, executives can appreciate a little levity as much as the next person. So don’t be afraid to show your whimsical side. That doesn’t mean turning your whole presentation into a standup routine. But a good-natured bit of humor here or there can go a long way towards making the presentation a little less dry while also making you more comfortable in the environment.

The Don’ts

  • Leave your Ego at the Door – As mentioned above, the executives you are presenting to probably have a lot of credentials and success under their belt. As such, they are not going to be too receptive or patient with someone in the lower echelons of the org chart showing off like he is some rock star. Keep yourself in check. Perhaps you may have some more intricate knowledge of this particular project area, but it is highly unlikely you have the comprehensive knowledge of the executives.
  • Try to Avoid Saying No Outright – This goes back to the terminology and how you use words in your dialog with executives. In many cases, the word ‘No’ or the words ‘We Can’t Do That’ do not sit well with the upper brass. No that is not to mean you should never use those words. But in cases where the answer it not entirely obvious, let the executive know that you will get back to them after you have conferred with the team. (And make sure you do so after the fact) At least that will give the impression that you are exercising due diligence rather than appearing dismissive.
  • Don’t Expect Specific Instructions – As mentioned, executives are used to efficient meetings. As such, they are not going to spend time trying to guide you through the presentation. Be prepared and don’t expect them to carry you. You will have to carry your own weight. You can always welcome them to provide suggestions on how the material should be presented, but more often then not, they will assume you know what you are doing.
  • Don’t Air Dirty Laundry – When presenting to executives, the last thing one should be doing is bringing up issues that are either tangential or irrelevant to the presentation at hand. If the company is having issues, the executives don’t need you to tell them. They are fully aware. Additionally, if you have had issues working with certain teams and some of the executives in that room have these teams in their reporting structure, the LAST thing you want to do is starting the finger-pointing game. Those types of conversations should be done privately. Any executive whose team is being bad-mouthed in front of his/her peers is not going to appreciate you bringing up the conversation at that time.
  • Don’t Take Things Personally – This one may be one of the most difficult things to contend with. However, it is imperative that you keep your cool and do not take criticism in a negative way. There is always going to be situations where you may be the brunt of a slight or perhaps a direct recrimination of some sort. Once again, you will earn far more respect keeping your cool in such a situation rather than devolving the presentation into an argument. We are all professionals in the end.

Conclusion

Working with executives is a challenge many of us may face in our working lifetime. While intimidation or dread can be the emotion many of us will feel in that circumstance, you are far better off looking at it as an opportunity. One that will allow you to showcase your talents and earn the respect of those at the top. You never know. A good presentation here or there in front of the top brass, and perhaps one day you will have that cherry parking spot next to the main entrance of the head office.

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Project Risk Management – Tools and Techniques

Every project, regardless of scope or complexity, is going to have some inherent risks. The type, number and severity of the risks will vary depending on a variety of factors, such as the project’s overall size, its related constituent pieces, the number of individuals on the project, and so forth.

But how does the project manager effectively catalog these risks? How are they adequately itemized and made part of the overall project management plan?

Any sort of risk assessment, regardless of the situation, is always a combination of both art and science, coupled with the individual’s own personal experience and knowledge. Because risks are, in and of themselves, intangibles, cataloging them can be somewhat daunting.

The PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) has an entire chapter dedicated to the concept of risk management. In some cases, seasoned professionals are actually brought in to provide their consulting expertise to make sure that all project risks are effectively itemized. But in most cases, it falls onto the shoulders of the project manager to be able to make that assessment. With that being said, how should the project manager proceed?

If one follows the PMBOK’s suggestions, it is important to create a task list. The PMBOK suggests the following tasks to be performed in sequence:

  1. Define the Risk Management Process (And make this part of the overall project plan)
  2. Identify Risks
  3. Perform a Quantitative Risk Assessment
  4. Perform a Qualitative Risk Assessment
  5. Create a Risk Response Plan
  6. Monitor Risks during the life-cycle of the Project

As some might indicate, the most difficult step in the process itself is to identify the risks themselves. There are some rules of thumb that one can follow when it comes to assessing the risks themselves. A step approach could be something like so:

  • Examine the plan and scope of the project; identify short-term tasks and assess the risk of each one individually
  • Examine the project as a whole; if there are dependencies (internal and external), assess the risk of those dependencies and catalog them
  • Determine the risk of the project not succeeding; what are the financial risks that one must be aware of
  • Assess the budget of the project (if any); determine areas that may induce risk pertaining to budgeting (i.e. cost of contractors, cost of tangibles, etc)
  • Determine any external risk factors, such as competitors or potential changes in market sentiment in regards to the project and its deliverables

Once the risks themselves have been itemized, there are two different ways of assessing the risks: quantitative and qualitative risk analysis. Those are defined as follows:

Qualitative Risk Analysis – This is the more subjective of the two. It relies very much on the experience of the project manager in being able to effectively gauge the risks themselves. A good rule of thumb when performing this type of analysis is to ask specific hypothetical ‘what if’ type questions. A few examples might be:

  • What if engineer ‘A’ leaves the project or is reassigned?
  • Have the requirements been properly itemized? And what if they haven’t?
  • What if the budget is adjusted half-way through the project’s implementation?
  • What if the learning curve for new technology is steeper than anticipated?
  • What if a dependent project runs into trouble? How will that affect the primary project?

Quantitative Risk Analysis – This uses more tangible or ‘hard’ assessment types, such as percentages, probabilities and numbers to demonstrate some of the risks that could cause project problems. In many cases, having this type of assessment available is very important to certain senior management types that require more in the form of numerical values as opposed to more subjective measures. Things like schedule ranges, cost budget ranges, and probability analysis (best or worst case scenario calculations) would fall into this scope.

When it comes to risks, experience of the project manager is the most valuable asset. So if you are a newbie, it might be a good idea to discuss risk analysis with more seasoned and experience project manager’s to gain their insight, especially if they have more working knowledge of a particular area. Also, when you become more familiar with risk analysis, creating a checklist that you can reference for future projects is a very good reusable resource that a project manager can leverage. Combining your list with those of other project managers will also allow you to have a more complete assessment of all the potential risks and risk types that you need to be cognizant of when monitoring your project.

The following graphic is a good frame of reference when it comes to the risk analysis cycle:

It demonstrates the ‘cyclical’ aspect of the overall risk management process. So ensure that you utilize it for reference during the project life-cycle to ensure you are effectively monitoring the project risks.